India’s relations with these neighboring countries have been very important geographically, historically and culturally. After attaining independence, India has tried to maintain its relations with these countries in a peaceful manner, but sometimes, relations with these countries have fluctuated due to some reasons. Since India is a peace-loving country, it has always tried to maintain friendly relations with its neighbors. In the present situation, we can say that India is in a better position in terms of social, political and economic conditions, and it is moving step by step with other countries of the world. Today, India is one of the leading countries in the world by proving itself in the fields of education, tourism, employment, etc.
- Nepal – India has very ancient relations with Nepal. Nepal is located in the northeast of India, a country located in the Himalayas. The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu. Nepal shares its borders with Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar. Nepal is not a huge country by area, but eight of the world’s 10 highest peaks are located in Nepal, including Mount Everest, the world’s highest point. Agriculture is the mainstay of Nepal’s economy; Apart from agriculture, tourism also contributes significantly to the country’s economy. The citizens of Nepal have many facilities in India. India has also given adequate financial support for the completion of many projects in Nepal. Distinguished leaders of both countries have visited each other and encouraged mutual friendship and cooperation. At present, both countries have agreed to deal with terrorism and hydropower generation. There are very few travel restrictions between India and Nepal. Nepali workers are employed in India and Nepali students study in Indian universities.
- China- At present, China is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. China is located in the north of India and shares its borders with the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The capital of China is Beijing, and it is the most populous country in the world. When the Communists came to power in China, India welcomed this change, India also advocated China’s entry into the United Nations. In 1954, the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Chinese Prime Minister signed the “Panchsheel” agreement. Despite this, in 1962, China invaded India at the north-east front and took part in Indian territory. The war soon ended but relations between India and China remained tense for a long time. The visits of Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi and Narasimha Rao to China somewhat improved the situation. Several trade agreements have also been signed, but restoring peace and mutual trust between the two countries is not an easy task.
- Myanmar – Myanmar (Burma) was previously part of British India and became independent in 1948. Its current capital is Naypyidaw. Burma is one of India’s good neighbors with which India shares a long and sensitive border, relations between the two countries have been friendly. The Indian states of Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, and Manipur share their border with Burma and smuggling along this border leads to many other illegal acts, and this is a major problem between the two countries.
- Bhutan – India shares a border of about 699 km from Bhutan, one of the happiest countries in the world of India, the states of West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim share their borders with Bhutan. India provides financial aid to Bhutan every year. Relations between India and Bhutan are very old and the relationship between these two countries is very strong. Cooperation in the economic sphere between the two countries has advanced them. India has helped Bhutan in industrial development, in the fields of telecommunications, hydroelectric survey, education, and forestry.
- Pakistan – The Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Kashmir share their border Pakistan. India’s relations with Pakistan remain more tense than other neighboring countries. In 1947, India was partitioned and Pakistan was formed. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad and the population of Pakistan is around 200 million. The two countries share the same historical, linguistic and cultural heritage, but since independence, relations between the two countries have been bitter. From 1947 to 1971, the relations between India and Pakistan were not good and fierce wars had also taken place between the two countries on the question of Kashmir and Bangladesh. Even after this, India has been keen to maintain friendly relations with Pakistan from the beginning. After the Simla Agreement, Delhi Agreement, Indo-Pak Water Treaty, the relations between the two countries started getting somewhat normal, but from 1985 to 1988, the then President of Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq, was trying to build a nuclear bomb. This led to bitterness in relations between the two countries. Later, Begum Benazir Bhutto came to power after the demise of Jia-ul-Haq, there was some improvement in the mutual relations of the two countries, but later military dictatorship was established in Pakistan. There has been a continuous effort by Pakistan’s soldiers to make Kashmir an international issue.
- Bangladesh – The Government of India has always endeavored to build an important relationship with its neighboring country Bangladesh. Former Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi played an important role in the formation of Bangladesh in the year 1971. The 5 states of India, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram share their border with Bangladesh. The relationship between the two countries is going on closely and significantly due to the ‘Treaty of Peace and Friendship’ in 1972. Currently, there are good relations between the two countries but there are differences on some questions even today. The capital of Bangladesh is Dhaka and the name of the currency of Bangladesh is Taka.
- India is a large country in South Asia. It has shared borders with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Myanmar, and Sri Lanka and the Maldives are the countries bordering India. Apart from this, Afghanistan and Maldives are also the nearest neighbors of India. There are a total of 17 Indian states, usually located along the international border. These 17 Indian states share their border with one, two or three countries. These Indian states are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim; Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.
- Afghanistan – India shares its borders with Afghanistan from Pakistan occupied Kashmir. Since ancient times, trade, cultural and technical relations have been established between Afghanistan and India. After the fall of the Taliban government in 2001, friendly relations between the two countries have strengthened. India praised the UN-sponsored Geneva Agreement on Afghanistan in 1988. India has contributed to the development of Afghanistan in every field. India is supporting Afghanistan in many areas including health, small scale industries, education. Bilateral relations between India and Afghanistan have traditionally been strong and amicable.
- Sri Lanka – India and Sri Lanka are traditionally close to each other. A large number of Tamils of Indian origin live in Sri Lanka. The capital of Sri Lanka is Sri Jayawardhanapura-Kotti. Relations between Sri Lanka and India have been important and close since ancient times. Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to promote Buddhism. India-Sri Lanka relations have been very cordial.